Life Stages: Monarch Butterfly

The monarch butterfly is one of the most readily recognized and iconic butterfly species on the planet.  While for some insects we might not even know what the immature stage looks like, the monarch has been heavily researched for many years and we know more about how it develops from egg to adult better than most insect species. We have a lot of monarchs at the museum field station where I work, so today I’m going to share the life cycle of the monarch butterfly, every stage for this one.

All insects start off as eggs, so let’s take a look at a monarch egg:

monarch egg

The monarch eggshell (called the chorion in insects) is pale and heavily textured with intricate patterns.  However, unless you get a really good, up close look at one, you’re mostly going to see a pale off-white football shaped object stuck to the underside of a milkweed leaf.  They’re small, but still readily visible if you look closely.  The egg eventually hatches, and the first caterpillar stage emerges:

monarch first instar

Immature insect life stages are called instars and an insect will move from, say, first to second instar by molting its exoskeleton so it can grow.  The first instar larva of the monarch is quite small and looks different from the later stages in its development. They have entirely black heads instead of the striped heads they develop later and they’re largely translucent.  Eventually, they eat enough that they outgrow their first instar exoskeleton and molt into a second instar:

monarch second instar

Seconds start to exhibit the stripey heads and the coloration that people associate with monarch caterpillars.  They’re less translucent than the firsts and start to show the white lines that make up a large part of the pattern on the later instars. The tentacles that come off the front and back of the caterpillars begin to show. Second instar monarch caterpillars have longer tentacles in front and only tiny stubs in the back. Both sets of tentacles are much more pronounced in the third instar:

monarch third instar

Third instars have obvious back tentacles, but they’re still fairly short. Both sets of tentacles are much longer in the fourths:

monarch fourth instar

The tentacles on the front of the fourths are quite long, and about twice as long as those in the back.

The fifth instar is the last stage:

monarch fifth instar

The tentacles are very long on the fifths!  The caterpillars are also quite large, about the size of your pinky finger.  They also have the color pattern most people most associate with monarch caterpillars, black, yellow, and white stripes and a striped head.

Once the fifth instar caterpillar has eaten enough and grown to a certain size, it can pupate.  The caterpillars typically leave the milkweeds they feed on as larvae and find another location to pupate:

monarch pupa

Monarch pupae are gorgeous!  Their pale green coloration helps them blend in with vegetation.  They also have a line of metallic gold spots along one side.  As they get closer to emerging as adults, the color changes.  The exoskeleton of the pupa becomes transparent and you can see the black and orange of the monarch and the outline of different body parts tucked inside.

The pupal stage of insects is really pretty amazing, transforming an insect from a worm-like structure to something with wings (usually).  They’re essentially completely rearranging their bodies!  Eventually, however, they finish their adult development, crack open the exoskeleton of the pupa, and pull their adult body out.  They then pump hemolymph (insect blood!) into their legs, mouthparts, and wings to expand them to their fully extended form.  Then the exoskeleton “cures” and hardens.  Once that happens, the insect is as big as it will ever get and has all its body parts in the position they will remain the rest of its life:

monarch adult

The only change an adult undergoes is the loss of body parts.  With butterflies, you can often get a good idea of whether it is young or old by looking at the wings.  Complete wings with brightly colored scales tend to indicate younger adults.  Tattered or missing wings and dull spots where scales have rubbed off generally mean you’re looking at a butterfly nearer the end of its life.

Monarch males have scent glands that help them find their mates. Once they find a female, they will mate:

mating monarchs

The female then lays an egg on the underside of a milkweed leaf.  She will leave it behind to lay more, often on other milkweed plants.  The caterpillars that hatch have to fend for themselves and ultimately only a small percentage will make it to the adult stage.

Monarchs have a very complicated yearly life cycle.  I am not going to go into much detail here, but they have multiple generations a year.  The monarchs that fly north from Mexico typically make it as far as Texas before they lay a bunch of eggs and die. The monarchs that hatch from these eggs spread further north in search of milkweeds and nectar, and then they too lay eggs and die.  This can happen one or two more times before a special generation is produced in late summer or early fall.  This generation lives close to 6 months instead of just a few weeks and they are the ones that will fly to Mexico, overwinter there, and then fly back to the US in the spring.

So there you have it: the complete monarch life cycle – and the first Life Stages post.  Hope you enjoyed this one, and I’ll post another species soon!

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Unless otherwise stated, all text, images, and video are copyright © C. L. Goforth.

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National Moth Week Favorites

My last post about National Moth Week!  Can you tell I really love this event?  It gets me outside looking at bugs both at work and at home each year, so it’s a ton of fun. However, this year’s fun was greater than usual thanks to a couple of things, a great insect find and a photo I’m really pleased with.

First, let’s discuss this awesome, amazing critter:

Pleasing lacewing

Pleasing lacewing

I saw it and started yelling, “Ooh, ooh, ooh!” and jumped around happily.  If my neighbors didn’t already worry about me, that little episode probably convinced them I am nuts.  However, I quickly came to my senses and took a whole bunch of photos of it. I knew it was something unusual, something I definitely haven’t ever seen before. Once I got a ton of photos, I ran inside and started looking through my field guides.  It wasn’t in any of them, but that didn’t surprise me.  It was so weird! I wasn’t even really sure what order it belonged to, but I thought Neuroptera (the net-winged insects) was the most likely.  So, I started randomly clicking through all of the Neuroptera photos on BugGuide to see if I could find it.  Happily I did!

Family Dilaridae, the pleasing lacewings.  Nallachius americanus specifically.  There are two species in the US (one is only found in Arizona) and about 70 species worldwide.

According to BugGuide, this group of insects does come to lights at night, but it’s rarely seen or collected.  The larvae are apparently thought to feed on beetles under bark, but there’s no mention of what the adults feed on.  I kinda felt like I should catch it and add it to my collection since it may be the only one I ever see, but I eventually decided against it.  I don’t have a scientific reason to collect any more, so I just watched it for a while and it eventually flew away.  I’m happy with just having photos of it.

This find totally made my entire National Moth Week!  If the pleasing lacewing had been the only thing I saw the entire week I still would have walked away happy.  Love getting to see/learn about new things, especially things that are entirely new.

A few days later, however, I got my favorite photo of the week:

Rosy maple moth

Rosy maple moth

I love rosy maple moths!  They’re super common in my area, but they’re so fuzzy and gaudily colored that it’s hard not to adore them.  This one had something weird going on on one of its wings (you can see the black markings on the hind wing on the left side of the photo – that’s not normal), but it let me handle it.  That meant I could get a good shot of its face, which I thoroughly enjoy doing. I snapped away and it eventually wiggled around into the position in the photo above, letting me get a dead on shot of its face.  Look at all that fuzz!  All that pink!  Those amazing antennae! This immediately became my favorite photo of NMW.  I spent the last few days of the event attempting to get similar head shots of other moths, but none of them worked out quite as well (i.e., didn’t amuse me as much) as this one.

And with that, I am done posting about National Moth Week!  I have so many other things I want to write about still, so I am hoping I can keep this momentum going a little while longer.  I still have an entire year’s worth of Dragonfly Swarm Project info/data to post too!  Look for more posts soon!

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Unless otherwise stated, all text, images, and video are copyright © C. L. Goforth.

National Moth Week Bycatch

bycatch (n.): the accidental capture of non-target species.  This term originated in the marine fishing industry, but has expanded to include other non-target species captured in other forms of collecting or harvesting.

National Moth Week is, as you may have gathered from the name,  a celebration of moths that asks people to learn more about and observe moths during the last full week of July.  However, you never just get moths when you set up blacklights!  You get a ton of non-moth insects coming to the lights as well, and today I want to feature some of the great non-moth insects I found this year.  Let’s explore them by order and start with the…

Orthoptera (grasshoppers, katydids, and crickets)

I find lots of field crickets and katydids at my lights, but I find a lot of these as well:

Common scaly cricket

Common scaly cricket

That’s a common scaly cricket immature (on my siding that’s clearly in need of a good powerwash to remove the algae!).  These are supposed to live on bushes or under debris near water, so I can only presume that they are taking advantage of the low spot in my yard that’s almost always sopping wet.  I love the shape of these crickets, just a little different from the standard cricket body plan.  This one is pretty dark compared to most of the scaly crickets I see too – the ones in my yard tend to be white and just a little translucent.

Dermaptera (earwigs)

Earwigs creep a lot of people out, but they’re harmless:

earwig

Earwig

Depending on the species, and I don’t know which one this is, earwigs can eat plants, decaying organic matter, or insect prey.  I didn’t see this one hunt at the lights as many other carnivorous insects and spiders do, so I suspect it might be a plant or humus eater rather than a predator.

Blattodea (cockroaches)

Cockroach

Cockroach

We all know and love (to hate) cockroaches!  I found loads of them near my lights this year.  I suspect they’re coming out of the storm sewer drain in front of my house.  This particular roach was looking down at me from the porch light by my front door, so I got a good look at its face for once.  Normally that’s tucked away below the plate-like front section of the thorax, the prothorax, where it’s hard to see.

Hemiptera (true bugs)

Most people don’t enjoy this species:

Brown marmorated stink bug

Brown marmorated stink bug

Brown marmorated stink bugs are invasive in the US and can invade homes in pretty large numbers.  As you might imagine, the scent of many stink bugs together in one place is none too pleasant!  These also feed on a variety of fruit and vegetable crops, so they’re not popular with farmers and gardeners either.  However, in spite of the problems they cause, I think they’re rather elegant looking bugs.  The coloration and pattern are subtle, but sort of pretty too.

This bug is a fun one:

Two lined spittle bug

Two lined spittle bug

That’s a two-lined spittle bug.  They get their name from the foamy secretions they excrete as they feed as immatures.  If you’ve ever seen something that looks like a wad of foamy spit hanging off a plant, you may be looking at spittle bug secretions!  They’re considered turfgrass pests, so people who care about their lawns often despise spittle bug nymphs.  Me, I’d rather have bugs than healthy grass, so I love having spittle bugs in my weedy lawn!

Coleoptera (beetles)

I get a lot of beetles at my lights, especially ground beetles in the family Carabidae, rove beetles in the family Staphylinidae, scarab beetles in the family Scarabaeidae, and click beetles in the family Elateridae.  I take loads of photos of the same species night after night, so it’s exciting to see something less common, like this gorgeous beetle:

Rustic borer

Rustic borer

That’s a rustic borer. It’s actually a common beetle at lights in North Carolina, but I rarely see them in my yard.  They a borer beetles, so their larvae grow inside of trees.  They’re not very picky – almost any hardwood tree will do for this species.

Hymenoptera (wasps, bee, and ants)

I am absolutely terrible at identifying wasps, but most of the ones I see at night look like the parasitic wasps in the Ichenumonidae and Braconidae families:

Wasp

Wasp

No idea what this one is, but I like the way it looks, thus I’m including it here.

Trichoptera (caddisflies)

Caddisflies start off life in water and emerge onto land as adults.  I have a large river that flows close to my house, so I suspect that’s the reason that I get so very many caddisflies at my lights.  I know this one is a longhorn caddisfly:

Longhorned cassisfly adult

Longhorned caddisfly

… but I’m not sure which family this one belongs to:

Caddisfly adult

Caddisfly

I can ID aquatic caddisfly larvae easily enough, but once they’re adults they honestly all look about the same to me…  Someday I’ll at least learn my caddisfly adults to family!

And finally, we come to the flies!

Diptera (flies)

These also have aquatic larvae, though they don’t live in the kinds of aquatic habitats you normally think of:

Moth fly

Moth fly

Moths flies are called drain flies as larvae as they are often found living in the water trapped in the U bends of drains in locker rooms, hospitals, bathrooms, and other places where skin cells and other human waste gets trapped in little nasty puddles of water.  The larvae are actually rather interesting looking, but the adults are downright adorable!  They’re tiny, but oh so fluffy.  I just love them!  I suspect these might be coming from the storm drain as I tend to see a lot of them at lights at night outside my house.  I don’t care how gross they are – I am always happy to see a moth fly!

I am going to post one more blog related to National Moth week, one that features my favorite insect find of the year and my favorite photo.  Look for that post coming soon! (And it’s already written, so this time I really mean it’s coming soon!)

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Unless otherwise stated, all text, images, and video are copyright © C. L. Goforth.

National Moth Week, As Seen From My Backyard

Well, this is far out of date now, but I’m going to go ahead and post it anyway! I’ve made it an annual tradition to blacklight in my backyard every night of National Moth Week. I set up a blacklight in my yard, point it toward the white siding of my house, turn it on at dusk, and then head out to my yard to see what comes to the lights a few times each night, photographing every species that I find. This year, it was very warm and humid and it rained one night, so I got a pretty great diversity! Some of the species are the very common species I find every time I blacklight in my yard, such as this elegant grass veneer:

Elegant grass veneer moth

Elegant grass veneer

My yard is mostly grass with a few non-native trees and shrubs, so it’s not surprising to find a species that depends on grass for its survival.  I also see a lot of these Suzuki’s promalactis moths:

Suzuki's promalactis moth

Suzuki’s promalactis

This is a species that’s non-native in the US, but we don’t know much about it still.  It’s a very pretty moth though, if you can get a close enough look at its very small body!

Other common moths included the common tan wave (these have to fly in from some other location as I have none of its many host plants in my yard):

Common tan wave moth

the clemens grass tubeworm (larvae feed on red clover, which is abundant in my “lawn”):

Clemens grass tubeworm moth

and the green cutworm (feeds on grasses, among other things, as caterpillars):

Green cutworm moth

Green cutworm

None of these are particularly showy moths, but they are readily abundant in my yard and among the most common species I see.  You’ll notice that most of the common species I see feed on grasses as caterpillars.  Given the amount of grass in my yard, it probably explains why I see so very many of these species at my lights.

This year, I saw some things that I’ve added to my backyard moth list during past National Moth Weeks, but may have only seen once or twice altogether.  I love skiff moths:

Skiff moth

Skiff moth

They feed on a variety of trees and shrubs, though I’ve never seen one of their awesome, tank-like green caterpillars in my yard.  They could be coming in from somewhere else. This is the smoky tetanolita:

Smoky tetanolita moth

Smoky tetanolita

Their caterpillars feed on dead leaves.  And this is the variable reddish pyrausta:

Variable reddish pyrausta moth

Variable reddish pyrausta

I can’t find much information about this species, but it’s awfully pretty.  Some close relatives of this group of moths make up the majority of the aquatic moth species, so I wonder if these might not be taking advantage of plants in the soggy part of my yard.

I got to add several new moths to my list this year! I loved this crowned slug moth:

Crowned slug moth

Crowned slug moth

No idea why it was posed that way, but it did fly away at some point and was not in fact dead.  This species could be feeding on my maple trees and it has an awesome caterpillar that is covered in stinging hairs.  It’s fun that a nasty caterpillar turns into such a plush, cuddly moth!

Given that I live in North Carolina and there are still a relatively large number of tobacco farmers around, it’s not surprising to see a tobacco budworm moth:

Tobacco budworm moth

Tobacco budworm moth

No idea where this might have come from, but perhaps a neighbor’s garden where it can feed on a variety of crop plants (including tomatoes and squash) and ornamental flowers.  I loved the elegant, subtle patterns on its wings!

This species I haven’t IDed beyond wainscot moth in the genus Leucania:

Leucania sp. moth

Leucania sp.

There are 33 species in this genus in the US and almost all of them can be found in the eastern part of the US.   I was able to ID another similarly drab moth as a white speck moth:

White speck moth

White speck

These are also called armyworms, apparently based on their habit of eating plants down to the ground and then marching to another area to continue feeding.  They’re generalist feeders and can be pesty.

This was my favorite of the new additions this year:

Brown shaded gray moth

Brown shaded gray

It was bigger than it looks in the photo, and I loved the striped pattern on the wings.  No bright colors or anything, but still very pretty.

My best find, however, didn’t sit still long enough for me to get more than a glance at it before it flew off.  It was a five spotted hawkmoth, a giant, powerful beast of a moth.  I was taking a photo of something else when it slammed into the back of my head.  Scared me badly enough that I shrieked loudly (so embarrassing!) and then it fluttered around outside of the light for a good five minutes before it landed just long enough for me to see what it was.  I lifted my camera, but it flew right into my face, smacked my cheek with its wings a few times, and then flew away.  Wow, such a gorgeous moth! And so scary when you don’t expect to have something the size of a small bat silently fly into your head at a high speed in the middle of the night!

Of course, you don’t see only moths when you blacklight!  My next post will feature the “bycatch” from National Moth Week, the non-target insects that also came to my lights.  I got a bunch of the same old things I always get, but this year I also got a few exciting new things that I can’t wait to share!

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Unless otherwise stated, all text, images, and video are copyright © C. L. Goforth.

Going, Going, Gone! (Friday 5 – on Saturday)

We have a lot of antlions at work.  The sand under our outdoor classroom building is very fine and has a lot of ants moving about, so there are hoards of antlions hanging out down there.  Hoards!!  If you aren’t familiar with antlion pits, they look like the Sarlacc in Star Wars.  Or, if you’re not a sci-fi lover like me, they look like this:

Antlion pits

Antlion pits

At the base of each one of those little craters is a monster:

Antlion-6

Antlion larva – rawwr!

Well, they’re monsters if you’re an ant!  Antlions, you see, are predators and they wait for their unsuspecting victims to slip into the cone-shaped pits they construct and tumble down to the bottom.  The pits are lined with fine, loose sand, so the ants have a hard time getting back out and they’ll slide back down to the bottom every time they try.  Sliding down to the bottom is bad if you’re an ant as that antlion is lying in wait for you, jaws poised to snap shut around you, just below the surface where they’re hidden from sight.  Once an antlion gets you, your life as an ant is probably over.

A lot of people haven’t played with antlions much, so I wanted to share a series of photos I took recently of that antlion above re-burying itself after I dug it up to take some photos.  These larvae crawl around backwards and they enter the dirt the same way, butt first.  The bewildered antlion sat on top of the sand for a moment before it realized it was back in its usual home.  Then it started digging.  The butt disappeared first:

Antlion

Antlion

Then most of the abdomen disappeared:

Antlion

Antlion

It was quickly up to its thorax in sand:

Antlion

Antlion

Then the head and thorax started to disappear:

Antlion

Antlion

All you could see was the mouthparts for a moment…:

Antlion

Antlion

… then the whole larva was swallowed by the sand!  This process took just a few seconds from start to finish, so it’s fast.  Over the next hour or so, it built itself a new cone-shaped pit by throwing sand all over the place, then it waited, lurking at the bottom of the pit for a hapless ant – or other insect – to become its next meal.

Antlions are crazy cool insects as larvae, then (at least in this species) they roll themselves up in a ball of dirt to pupate before turning into a damselfly-like adult:

antlion

Antlion adult – may not be the same species as the larva…

Check out the long, hooked antennae!  That’s the easiest way to tell these are not damselflies.  I know I’ve preached about this before, but it’s my very biggest insect misidentification pet peeve so I feel it bears repeating.

So there you have it!  An antlion larva burying itself in sand.  Next time you see a pit, think about what lurks beneath the surface.  It’s the stuff of ant nightmares…

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Unless otherwise stated, all text, images, and video are copyright © C. L. Goforth

What Time is it in Nature: Common Whitetail Dragonfly

I wrote this for the blog at the museum where I work a few weeks ago. Thought you all might be interested!

NC Museum of Natural Sciences Blogs

Summer is nearly here, and the dragonflies have returned to Prairie Ridge!  On any given day, you might see 15 or 20 species of dragonflies and damselflies at the pond, but some species are more common than others.  The Common Whitetail (Plathemis lydia), as the name suggests, is one of the most commonly spotted dragonflies at Prairie Ridge.

Common whitetail male at the pond

Common Whitetails are found throughout the US and in every county in North Carolina, so they are one of the most common species in the country.  They are medium-sized dragonflies that reach lengths of just under 2 inches with wingspans of about 2.25 inches and have relatively broad abdomens.  Males, as seen in the image above, have wide black or dark brown bands along the center of each wing and a bright white abdomen.  Females look quite different, sporting three black spots along the upper edge of each wing and brown abdomens with…

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Dragonfly Emergence

A few weekends ago, I was leading a ladybug hunt at work and took everyone into the garden to see if we could find anything different.  The kids eventually wandered over to the garden pond, pulled in by whatever irresistible lure that pond holds for people under the age of 12, and peered in.  The boy quickly called me over to look at something and pointed to the leaf.  This is what he saw:

Carolina saddlebags emerging

Carolina saddlebags emerging

Dragonfly emergence!  As much time as I spend around water and as much time as I spend watching dragonflies, I’ve never had a camera with me when I’ve seen dragonflies emerging.  I was thrilled!  I snapped a few shots before we looked at other plants in the pond.  There were a half-dozen dragonflies dragging their soft, squishy bodies out of their last exoskeletons as nymphs and preparing to join the world above the water.  I finished the program, but as soon as the ladybug hunters left, I went right back to the pond to look for more dragonflies.  Over the course of the day, I spent about 2 hours watching the dragonflies emerging and snapping photos of a dozen dragonflies that transformed from nymph to adult.  It was magical!  I naturally couldn’t wait to share some photos with you all.

Transforming from a nymph to an adult as a dragonfly is not as complex as it the more familiar transformation from a larva to a butterfly.  Dragonflies undergo what is called incomplete, or hemimetabolous, metamorphosis, so they move from egg to nymph to adult with no pupal stage.  Even though most of the kids I work with will never see it, dragonfly nymphs actually look quite a bit like the adults.  Butterflies have to rearrange all their caterpillar tissues into butterfly tissues while dragonflies simply lose a mouthpart, gain a pair of wings, and fly away.  Still, there are all sorts of horrible things that can go wrong.  I saw one dragonfly get blown off its perch as it was pulling the last of its abdomen free from the exoskeleton, only to be blown into the water.  I tried to rescue her, but she eventually died.  Another dragonfly couldn’t free itself from its exoskeleton at all and remained stuck inside until it died.  But, 10 of the 12 dragonflies I observed emerged with no problems.  Here’s how it works.

First, the dragonfly nymph must crawl out of the water.  This appears to be a rather laborious process as the adult dragonfly is just about to burst out of an exoskeleton that is much too small and the nymph practically drags its body up and out of the water:

Eastern pondhawk nymph

Eastern pondhawk nymph

That particular dragonfly took a good 20 minutes to get 10 inches up the stem before wrapping her legs around it and starting to puff herself up.  Eventually, the dragonfly breaks the exoskeleton open along the thorax and begins to spill out of the hole.  The head is extracted first:

Stuck dragonfly

Stuck dragonfly

You know how I mentioned that dragonfly that got stuck in its exoskeleton?  This is as far as that one got.  It still looked like this when I left work 6 hours later.  Assuming all goes well, however, the dragonfly begins to pull its body out of the nymphal exoskeleton.  I saw two different methods of this.  This blue dasher female freed her legs, then used them to grasp the stem and pull the rest of her body out:

Blue dasher emerging

Blue dasher emerging

The female eastern pondhawk, however, started bending her body over backwards, using gravity to help pull her head and thorax down to extract her abdomen:

Eastern pondhawk emerging

Eastern pondhawk emerging

Both dragonflies eventually rested on the plant for a while, pumping hemolymph into their wings to extend them fully.  The blue dasher sat above her exoskeleton:

Blue dasher emerging

Blue dasher emerging

…while the eastern pondhawk rested below hers:

Eastern pondhawk emerging

Eastern pondhawk emerging

The pondhawk was too close to the water to extend her wings fully, however, so she eventually moved up the stem so that she could finish her wing development and stretch them all the way out:

Eastern pondhawk emerging

Eastern pondhawk emerging

I know I’ve mentioned it several times in the past, but insects shed all of their exoskeleton when they molt, which includes the exoskeleton-lined respiratory system.  Those little white strings hanging out of that shed exoskeleton is the shed respiratory system.  I never get tired of marveling at just how amazing it is that insects replace whole systems when they molt, both internally and externally!

eventually, both the blue dasher and the eastern pondhawk had dried their wings sufficiently to move them out to their sides, holding them in the manner characteristic of dragonflies:

Blue dasher emerging

Blue dasher emerging

At this point, the dragonflies began to harden, their bodies darkening in color until they approached their final color.  The blue dasher female was a dusky black:

Blue dasher ready to fly

Blue dasher ready to fly

The eastern pondhawk became an even more vivid green and her black markings became dark and vibrant:

Eastern pondhawk ready to fly

Eastern pondhawk ready to fly

The whole process took about three hours for each species.  Eventually, the 10 successfully molted new adults all flew off, ready to spend their short lives on land and leaving their old lives behind:

Carolina saddlebag exoskeleton

Carolina saddlebag exoskeleton

What an amazing process!  If I had to spend a Saturday at work (and a very long Saturday at work at that), these sorts of things make it completely worth it.  I was thrilled I got to see all these dragonflies emerging.  Every time I go into the garden now, I am drawn immediately to the pond.  Will there be more dragonflies emerging?  So far I haven’t seen another, but it’s only a matter of time.

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Unless otherwise stated, all text, images, and video are copyright © C. L. Goforth